Cascadia Wildlife Blog
News from the Wolverine Tracking Project and more
It's hard to believe it's September, and almost Fall! This time of year is always exciting for us because it means it's almost time to dust off the ol' snowshoes, start watching the snow reports on the mountain, and get ready for Winter Wildlife Tracking and Camera Surveys!
Registration is open for Winter Wildlife Surveys!
Tracking Club: Spiders and Invertebrates
Nature Book Club
Wildlife survey findings
Although winter may be on the horizon, our summer wildlife surveys are not over yet, and this past month was a busy one in the forest! We have lots of different animals to share with you and, with that, some fun facts. Let's get into our camera survey findings for the month leading up to September.
Black bears (Ursus americanus) were consistently present at many of our camera sites this summer. Although only one species of bear resides in Oregon, the black bear, elsewhere in the country they can be confused with other bears such as grizzlies. Black bears' coats come in a variety of colors, including cinnamon, blue-black, brown, a combination of light and dark, and even white! Size will also vary intraspecifically (between members of the same species), making it difficult to use size alone as a factor in identifying bears. Some black bears can even be larger than grizzly bears! So, how do we tell black bears apart from grizzly bears?
It's all in the face! A lot can be determined through looking at the facial profile and ear shape. Black bears have a straight face profile from forehead to nose tip. Looking at a side profile of the face, a straight line can be drawn from the eyes to the end of the nose. Black bears' ears are, on average, longer, larger, pointed, and more upright. Keep in mind the angle in which you look at the bear could skew their facial profile, as well as if they've recently been in water, which will make the fur wet and cling close to the body, changing the size comparison of the ears to the rest of the body. In comparison, grizzly bears have a concave facial profile and smaller, rounder ears.
Take a look at the bears we detected throughout this past month and notice variations between these individuals, despite them all being black bears. Note that the last bear is young and not yet full size.
Top to bottom: A cinnamon colored black bear makes their way towards the camera, taking a moment to sniff the bait log; a brown colored black bear walks away from the camera, showing their paws and tiny tail; a blue-black colored brown bear investigates a curious smells by putting their face to the ground, resembling a downward dog yoga position; a young black colored bear investigates the bait log.
Bobcats (Lynx rufus), despite their small size (about twice the size of a domestic cat, on average), are ferocious carnivores. They usually prey on small mammals like rabbits/hares, squirrels, woodrats, and voles. The largest animal a bobcat has been known to kill is deer! If this occurs, it often happens in the winter months when food is more scarce to find and deer have a harder time getting around in the snow. In pursuit of food, bobcats have been known to climb up tall trees and expertly navigate around rocky terrain. Unlike their domestic counterparts, bobcats have no aversion to water and are quite skilled swimmers. Adult bobcats have no natural predators, although if the opportunity presents itself, larger predators will target bobcats, in particular juvenile bobcats.
This past month we detected a mother bobcat and her two kittens (shown below)! These felines will mate in early spring and after 60-70 days, anywhere from 1-6 kittens are born. These two kittens were likely born at the tail-end of summer, and will stay with their mother until they are around 8 months of age, dispersing in the winter time to find territory of their own. Other than when mating and rearing offspring, bobcats are solitary creatures, as exemplified by the other detections we've had of them.
Top to bottom: A female bobcat walks through the camera site while her two curious kittens roam around the bait stump; out on a rocky outcrop at night, a bobcat thoroughly checks out the camera; a bobcat passes through the forest during the day; a bobcat climbs on the bait log and sniffs around.
Below are two photos of bobcat scat. The scat is blunt ended, contains no tapering or twisting, and is pretty much one solid tube, leading us to believe this is scat deposited by a feline. At around 0.5-0.75" in diameter, it's the right size for a bobcat scat. Feline scats are more likely to be segmented than canine scats - which can be close look-a-likes - as they are extremely dense due to their carnivorous nature. In the second photo there are some hairs that can be seen, take a look for yourself!
Top to bottom: a bobcat scat, in 3 pieces. The first piece is quite long and blunt, the other two pieces are much shorter but still quite stubby; an up close photo of the long scat from the first photo. A wild strawberry is in the foreground, and small hairs can be seen in the scat, which is turning a white-gray color.
Next, we have another member of the feline family, the mountain lion or cougar (Puma concolor, sometimes also referred to as Felis concolor). Their coat color ranges from tan, light brown, brown-orange, and gray-brown, and like bobcats, are solitary creatures. Their main food source is deer, which they kill with a powerful bite to the neck. A mountain lion can leap up to 20 feet while hunting! In addition to deer, they target elk, bighorn sheep, and sometimes even raccoons, birds, and small mammals.
Unfortunately, these majestic big cats are listed by the IUCN as Near Threatened in some locations, though not in Oregon. At one time, however, they were in danger here. In 1843, in what is now considered Oregon, a mountain lion bounty program was initiated, which continued until 1967 when the animal was reclassified as a big game animal. By 1961, it was estimated that around 200 individuals were left and were in danger of being extirpated (locally extinct). In 1994, Measure 18 was passed in Oregon, banning the use of hounds to hunt mountain lions. Since then, they have been recovering, and as of 2019, Oregon's Fish and Wildlife Department estimates the mountain lion population in Oregon to be over 6,000 individuals. However, this count includes kittens, most of whom don't survive until adulthood.
Top to bottom: a nighttime sighting of a mountain lion, who sniffed a branch before taking off; a photo of a mountain lion during the day, just about to step over a downed log.
Moving onto a different family, we have the Canidae family, consisting of coyotes, foxes, wolves. The coyote (Canis latrans) is an intermediate sized canid and, like other animals we discussed, also come in a variety of coat colors, including grayish, cinnamon, brownish, or a combination of those colors. Coyotes on the eastern and western sides of the state have differences in color and markings, although this difference is so subtle it can easily be overlooked. In western Oregon, individuals tend to be darker and have more brown coloration than their eastern counterparts. Albino coyotes with pink eyes and foot pads have also occurred in Oregon, although extremely rare!
Historically, Oregon's coyote populations were kept in check by gray wolves, which were extirpated from the area in the 1800-1900s and only recently re-introduced, leaving that role unfilled, which in turn has lead to a boom in coyote populations over those years. Although many have vilified coyotes as pests in farm and urban settings due to livestock and pet killings, coyotes play an important role in the ecosystem by controlling rodent populations and foraging on carrion that could otherwise spread disease if left to rot. Cemeteries and golf courses have noted the significant reduction of damages made by gophers and other rodents due to coyotes. Coyotes also help control geese populations that destroy young crops and feral cat populations that prey on birds. We speculate that the coyote below is catching their next meal and wish them luck!
A coyote listens and watches intently at something - possibly a prey animal - before springing into action off-screen.
Additionally, coyotes have complex social structures and will use scent marking as a form of non-verbal communication. The two coyotes shown below exemplify marking via urination, which is done by both males and females. Both coyotes are believed to be males, using a lazy pee squat instead of the normal lifting of the leg.
Left to right or top to bottom: a coyote, facing towards the camera, in a pee squat; another coyote, facing away from the camera, urinates at the same spot as the previous coyote did.
Naturally curious, coyotes will sniff and explore sites quite often. Based on our observations, like the ones below, they seem to do this more than other animals (except for black bears).
Top to bottom: two coyotes sniff and explore the area near the bait stump; a white-tip tailed coyote jumps onto the bait log with their front paws.
Coyotes will also rub and roll on scents they deem worthy. Studies have shown that the rub-roll behavior is most frequently documented during the summer and early fall, although coyotes do roll around in the snow at times as well. This rub-roll behavior has been accredited to preference for certain baits over others, where the most attractive smelling baits elicited the highest numbers of rub-roll responses. Take a look at the rub-roll behavior exhibited by the coyote below!
A single coyote sniffs around the camera site before rubbing and rolling on the ground in response to the scent-lure.
The striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), below, is one of two skunk species found in Oregon and the Mt. Hood National Forest. About the size of a domestic cat, striped skunks are normally docile and unobtrusive, but can be susceptible to rabies infections. Their most widely known characteristic is the ability to spray a foul smelling odor from the underside of their tail. Not to worry, as skunks are mainly nocturnal creatures (most active during the night) and humans are unlikely to encounter one while out hiking. Like other animals, the striped skunk has intraspecific coat color variation that ranges from the classic white stripe and black body, entirely white, rich brown replacing the black body, or yellow replacing the white stripe.
A striped sunk climbs on the downed bait log and walks along it, sniffing as they do.
We had our first owl sighting of the summer! There are 14 species of owls in Oregon, and 10 of them are confirmed in the Mt. Hood National Forest, although by this photo we're not able to make a determination on which species this is. Owls are mostly nocturnal and they prey upon insects, fish, frogs, woodrats, flying squirrels, and other small mammals that are active at night. This sighting, however, happened during the day, and it appears the owl is holding something in its talons - maybe a squirrel or other prey animal.
Fun fact: Not all owls have the classic "whoo" call and each species' call is distinct and unique. Here are two examples of very different calls from the northern pymy owl and barred owl.
The vague shape of wings and an owl's head can be seen, along with a figure at the owl's feet, possibly a prey animal such as a squirrel.
Another bird of prey that was seen this month is a hawk. This hawk is most likely a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) but another candidate could be Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) as they are nearly identical from this back view angle. Whichever hawk this may be, it's likely to be a juvenile, since the coloration and banding patterns of the tail feathers changes as they mature. Both hawks are of similar size and coloring, having light morphs and dark morphs. These two morphs appear similar from the back, but the underside of a light morph hawk are mostly white or off-white with a dark belly band.
The backside of a possible red-tailed hawk about to land on a rock, with wings outstretched.
Are you batty for bats? Us too! This is also our first bat detection over the summer! There are 15 species of bats within Oregon, 9 of which are found in the Mt. Hood National Forest. In Oregon and worldwide, bats are declining, with 9 of the 15 species in Oregon listed as Conservation Strategy Species. We're not able to make an identification on which species the individual shown below could be. Bats are incredibly important members of the ecosystem, eating insects known to be pests to farmers & humans, pollinating over 500 species of plants, and dispersing seeds. Bats eat around 1,000 insects every hour, which adds up to nearly half their body weight by the end of the night. These nocturnal mammals use echolocation to figure out the location of their prey. Echolocation utilizes high pitched sound waves emitted by the bat, which bounce off objects and insects in the area, allowing the bat to know their precise location.
A blurred photo of a bat flying close to the camera.
Next up, deer. The deer in the photos and GIFs below are most likely Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus, commonly known simply as black-tailed deer), a subspecies of mule deer. In Oregon, 4 types of deer exist (white-tailed deer, Columbian white-tailed deer, mule deer, and Columbian black-tailed deer). Mule deer are also present in the Mt. Hood National Forest, but the differences are subtle. Black-tailed deer have tails that are all black on the top, as seen in one of the photos below.
Breeding, for all these deer, occurs from late October through early December, and after about 7 months, fawns are born. Fawns will typically lose their distinct white spots by September, so we're keeping an eye out for that in the next few weeks. Females will usually give birth to twins, but the number of offspring depends on suitable habitat. We've seen does with only one offspring as well as does with twins on our cameras. This past month we've seen quite a few single fawns, shown in a couple instances below. Females, on average, will live longer than males - 15 years compared to 9 respectively. This is due to a number of reasons including fighting during the mating season and hunting of bucks.
Deer are the mammals most commonly seen on our cameras and while they've been known to stick around the camera site and check it out, we also get plenty of sightings of them moving through the site. Below you'll see instances of both situations.
Top to bottom, left to right: a single doe passes through, followed by a doe and her fawn, and lastly a straggling doe, who rushes to catch up with the herd; a buck shows off his antlers, caught with his tongue partially out; a doe and fawn simultaneously check out the camera site; two deer, barely visible above a field of purple flowers, watch a bird fly overhead; a fawn licks their lips after sniffing the bait log.
What's chunky, has short legs, a bushy tail, and is the largest squirrel in Oregon? Why, the yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris), of course! Their brown-gray coats allow them to blend into their preferred habitat, rocky outcrops, although in some circumstances will use a pile of logs or an abandoned building. Marmots hibernate, adult males preceding all others. Following them are adult females, yearling females, and lastly yearling males. If you were hoping to see a marmot with your own eyes this fall, there's only a few weeks left to do so! They spend a mere 135-150 days above ground, going into hibernation starting around late September and not emerging until around May.
Top to bottom, left to right: the side-view of a yellow-bellied marmot on top a rock, standing proudly.
A member of the mustelid family, the weasel (Mustela spp.), presents itself below. There are two types of weasels in Oregon and the Mt. Hood National Forest, long- and short-tailed. Short-tailed weasels prefer meadows, fields, brushy areas and open woods, and forest edges for suitable habitat. Long-tailed weasels prefer habitats near water, but both species have overlapping habitats. The camera site in the photo is adjacent to a river and the weasel in the photo is rather large, leading us to believe this may be a long-tailed weasel. There can be overlap in size, so it's not always possible to tell which species is which in photos.
Don't be fooled by their small stature as both these species prey on small rodents such as mice, chipmunks, voles, shrews, rats, and squirrels. Although they can be active during the day, weasels are normally nocturnal. This is consistent with our sightings as we have only seen detections of weasel at night. They do not hibernate and are active at all times during the year. Often, fur color is white during the winter and brown in the summer, although individuals can have brown pelage in winter.
Standing on top of a downed log, a weasel with eyes glowing in the dark.
An important prey species for many species throughout the forest, and the largest native tree squirrel, is the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus). Like most tree squirrels (except the northern flying squirrel) the western gray almost exclusively exhibits diurnal behavior (active during the day). This squirrel is omnivorous and eats conifer seeds, acorns, fungi, insects, berries, other fruit, and some green vegetation. They are listed as a sensitive species in Oregon, as competition from eastern gray squirrels and fox squirrels have led to a decline in their numbers.
These squirrels are fast-moving creatures and this summer, we've frequently seen them in cahoots with one another, climbing logs, and running around like the visit below.
Two western gray squirrels chase one another over a downed log.
The last member of the Sciuridae family we are sharing this month is the Douglas squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii), which are also in decline in recent decades. This has largely been attributed to loss of preferred habitat - mixed mature conifer forests - and competition from invasive squirrels. The Douglas squirrel is a Conservation Strategy Species in Oregon. They are smaller than the western gray squirrel and have a orange-red belly and light brown-gray fur on the head and back. The Douglas squirrel does not hibernate and spends the fall months gathering seeds and cones in mass quantities, earning them the title of larder hoarders. Other favorite foods include bird eggs, berries, seeds, flowers, leaf buds, and fungi.
Fun fact: These squirrels have a mutualistic relationship with fungi. As they eat and subsequently discard the reproductive parts of fungi, Douglas squirrels spread fungus spores around the forest, connecting vast mycorrhizal networks that are incredibly important for the health of trees.
A Douglas squirrel in the foreground, carrying what appears to be a leaf in its mouth.
Our last animal to share this month is the bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea). Although this rodent is no squirrel, they boast a squirrel-like tail that is wholly unique to members of the Cricetidae family, which contains over 600 species including New World mice and rats, voles, lemmings. Thirteen subspecies of woodrats are recognized, 4 of them are in Oregon, and possibly 2 in the Mt. Hood National Forest. They are prey for many species of birds and mammals, including owls, martens, fishers, and bobcats. While not normally included in their diet, coyotes, spotted skunks, long-tailed weasels, red-tailed hawks, wolverines, and foxes will all prey on this rodent.
A woodrat scampers around the camera site, pausing every so often.
Although this month there were no camera sightings of Sierra Nevada red fox - one our target species - we did have a volunteer turn in a potential scat from this small canine. The scat is twisted and tapered, a good indication of canine scat, but measuring at around 0.5" in diameter, it's on the cusp of our cutoff for fox scat. We won't definitively know who this scat belongs to until genetic testing can be done, but we can make our best educated postulation in the meantime.
Top to bottom: a potential Sierra Nevada red fox scat. It is old and starting to turn a gray-brown color. A ruler is next to it for scale; the same scat, but different segments are shown. There is one long piece and several smaller pieces, and like the first scat, is turning a gray-brown color.
Another volunteer also found some wild turkey feathers and a probable turkey scat. Turkeys have been in part of Oregon's history since 1961, when they were first introduced to the area. Now, more than 10,000 turkeys live all over Oregon. Did you know male turkeys are called toms or gobblers and females are called hens? In the same vein, juvenile males are jakes and juvenile females are jennies. The scat below is from a tom, as scat from hens are more balled up instead of a 'J' shape.
Left to right or top to bottom: two barred feathers from a turkey, alternating dark brown and light yellow to cream color; a probable male turkey scat which has a lot of volume to it and it turning white. The scat follows a gentle 'J' shape.
That's going to do it for this month's sightings and findings! Tune in next month where we will showcase our monthly blog and Wildlife Review, highlighting the best of the best findings of the summer!
Cascadia Wild News
Hello everyone! Before we get to the findings from the Wolverine Tracking Project's Wildlife Camera, Fox, and Wolf Surveys, we have some news to share!
Join the Fox Team!
August's shortening, golden days are here, but there's still plenty of time to help out with the Sierra Nevada Red Fox Scat Survey!
The Sierra fox lives in the upper elevations of the Sierra Nevadas and the Cascades of California and Oregon. You may have heard the recent news that the foxes in the Sierras will be protected under the Endangered Species Act. Why are these foxes federally protected and not the rest of the Sierra Nevada red foxes in CA and OR? Although a Conservation Strategy Species in Oregon and protected in California, we simply do not know enough about them, including those on Mt. Hood, in order for wildlife managers to determine if their populations are endangered. The genetic information collected on this survey helps us understand these elusive, native foxes and directly informs these kinds of decisions.
Be part of this groundbreaking research this summer!
Volunteers have been working hard to document the wildlife in the forest this past month. Although no target species (wolverine, gray wolf, Sierra Nevada red fox, or Pacific marten) of the Wolverine Tracking Project were documented on camera, volunteers did find some potential fox and wolf scat. And, we've got plenty of other exciting sightings to share. We've seen quite a few pairings and even groups of animals, so stick around for those!
Remember that awful heatwave that gripped the PNW a few weeks ago? These coyotes braved the scorching temperatures, and if you look closely, you can see them with their mouths open, panting, to help cool down.
Top: A closeup of a coyote with its mouth open. Bottom: A side view of a coyote with its mouth open.
Sometimes we even get great photos like this one below. If this coyote had social media, this would definitely be a profile picture! In the second photo, we can see another coyote, majestically walking along a mountaintop ridge - what a good life!
Top: A coyote from the side view, staring straight into the camera, the front left paw is lifted.
Bottom: A coyote walks along a ridge, examining the hair snagging station as it passes by.
Single coyote detections are by far the most common sighting we see, but they can travel in pairs or threes, sometimes in even larger groups than that. From a quick glance below, it appears there's only two coyotes, but if you look closely, you'll see another one comes into the mix totaling three coyotes. This other coyote conveniently has a white-tipped tail, which isn't exactly unusual, but it's definitely distinct. We've seen another white-tipped coyote in this area before, and it's possible this is the same one. However, there's also potential for it to be another member of the pack.
A coyote comes up to the bait stump, sniffs it, then marks (urinates) on the ground next to it, and runs off. Another, with a white-tipped tail, smells the bait stump, but eventually walks off. A third coyote walks up to the bait stump and marks the ground.
Coyotes are curious creatures and we will often catch them sniffing, rolling, and marking at our camera sites. Marking (urinating, defecating, rubbing, or rolling) happens for a variety of reasons, urine being used most commonly to outline territory, mostly by males. Females also will mark, but more to define their den's territory. The first coyote that marks the ground gets really low, almost putting her bottom to the ground, indicating this is a female. The second coyote is in a semi-squatted position and lowers his belly, indicating this is a male. Juvenile male coyote will squat to relieve themselves, making use of the leg lift once they reach a certain age. However, male coyotes can also be lazy and use the squat method when they feel like it.
Below, a great example of coyote scat. It's got nice long, tapered ends and is twisted in the appearance, especially the left piece, characteristic of canine scat. With a diameter of around an inch, it's likely to be a coyote's.
A coyote scat, consisting of two pieces, a small one on the bottom and a bigger one above it. Both are extremely long and tapered at the ends.
Moving onto felines, first up we've got the magnificent mountain lion. This animal goes by many names - cougar, puma, panther, el leon, catamount, and many more! - but they all refer to this animal here, Puma concolor. The term panther, or more specifically black panther, is also used used for melanistic leopards (Panthera pardus) and jaguars (Panthera onca). Mountain lions have the most extensive range out of any other mammal in the Western Hemisphere, from the Canadian Yukon to The Straits of Magellan. Body size greatly varies depending on region, with on average, smaller individuals near the equator and larger ones closer to the poles. With so many different communities spanning across that range, it's no wonder everyone had a different name for the animal!
The backside of a mountain lion in mid-stride, seen at night.
Next up in the feline family is the bobcat. Roughly twice the size of your average domestic cat, weighing no more than 40 lbs. In comparison, cougars can weigh anywhere from 65-220 lbs. Bobcats are one of four lynx species found in the world. Not to be confused with the three other lynx species, Canadian, Iberian, and Eurasian lynx, the bobcat inhabits warmer climates, lower latitudes, and are just a tad smaller than the others. Bobcats' red-tinged and spotted coats help them blend in with their surroundings in order to gain the upper hand on their main food source - hares. The snowshoe hare is most commonly seen hare in the Mt. Hood National Forest.
Top to bottom: A bobcat walks through the camera site from left to right; a bobcat takes a pause to sniff the bait stump, its coat is a red-tint, and the tips of the ears, tail, and feet are black; a curious bobcat sniffs around the forest floor, then stands up in an alerted position, and quickly runs off.
The snowshoe hare, the favorite meal of the bobcat and an important part of the diet of other forest carnivores, is usually seen at night. Their name stems from the large hind feet they possess, which has a snowshoe effect in the snow. This prevents them from sinking, and allows them to hop around with ease during those winter months. Their running abilities would put Usain Bolt to shame at a top speed of 50 miles an hour!
A snowshoe hare, seen at night, sits and stares into camera.
Similarly to other forest carnivores, bobcats will also mark their home range. Marking can also signify courtship, which is one of the only time these felids are not solitary, save for the 9 months where females raise their young. Going back to our discussion about coyotes, we can tell this particular bobcat is a female based on how she is marking.
A lone bobcat walks through the camera site, pausing for a moment to pop a squat before heading off-screen.
Two potential bobcat scats are shown below. In the first photo, evidence of scratching can be seen, a practice that can be seen among felids. Scratching sites are used by felines to communicate, and can even be in use for decades! This scat isn't as blunt as the mountain lion scat seen above, but no two scats are alike, even coming from the same individual. At around 0.75" in diameter, that puts this scat solidly in bobcat range.
The second photo shows more segmented and blunt ended pieces of scat. There's also hardly any twisting, and the size is well under an inch, leading us to believe this came from a bobcat as well. It's amazing the variation between scats from the same species!
Top: A feline's scratch and scats. The scats are comprised of three pieces, two similar sized pieces, roughly 3 inches long, and one small piece, roughly an inch long. Bottom: several pieces of scat, very blunt ended and segmented, light brown in color.
A true omnivore, the black bear. Black bear detections are always a delight to see since they have so much personality! In last month's blog we saw a pair mating and this month lacked no surprises either!
Left to right, top to bottom: A black bear put its nose to a log, intently sniffing; a closeup photo of a large black bear; the left rear paw of a black bear can be seen as it walks away; a black bear on its hind legs, gripping the log the bait box rests upon; some careful rearrangement of the bait logs from a black bear.
Black bears have a 2-year reproductive cycle, where females will breed around May-July, but with delayed implantation the females only become pregnant in the winter, starting in November. They will carry the cubs to term through the winter, giving birth in mid-late January. Cubs will remain with their mother, called a sow, throughout that whole year and into the next spring. They will disperse in the spring coming into their second year. Once the cubs are gone, the female is ready to mate and start the process all over again.
Three black bears, a sow and two cubs, explore the camera site.
It's pretty easy to spot bear scat in the summer! Being true omnivores, bears love to get their paws on wild berries growing in the forest. As a result, their scat looks like it, too! The enormous volume usually gives a bear scat away, but other characteristics can include cylindrical pieces and blunt ends if they've been eating a more carnivorous or fibrous diet.
Left to right, top to bottom: A bear scat, dark purple, bordering on black, with many berry seeds intermixed within. A foot is there for size reference; another bear scat, this one also having lots of berry contents.
Since we've been discussing wildlife communication and sign, what better time to throw in a few bear stomps? Bears make stomp trails, and they will go over them multiple times to create a deep indentation in the soil. Sometimes they will use a "cowboy walk", which is a stiff-legged, wide-based stomping gait, twisting their feet in the ground. This helps to deposit scents from the bottom of their feet, which others can smell and use as a form of communication.
Left to right, or top to bottom: A shallow bear stomp trail. The tracks can be seen contrasting the pine needle litter; a large bear footprint, preserved in dried mud.
Our last carnivore is the striped skunk. It's not uncommon or unusual to have sightings of these animals, but it is not often we get to see them in the daytime since they are pretty exclusively nocturnal.
Top to bottom: the distinct pattern of a striped skunk, two white racer stripes among a black background, can bee seen as the skunk checks out the camera site; a striped skunk on a log, sniffing the bait box.
This gang of elk were spotted, traveling with two calves! Did you know that elk can count (to some degree)? When cows (female elk) are presented with bulls (male elk) having 9 or 10 point antlers, the cows will almost always choose the bulls with 10 point antlers. How fascinating is that?
Several elk take turns walking through the camera site, sniffing at the ground as they walk through. They have light brown bodies and dark brown necks. The calves still have white spots on their coats.
Our last ungulates are deer. Not as big as elk, they're the smallest member of the deer family (Cervidae) in Mt. Hood National Forest. These two young bucks enjoyed a quick sniff and snack before heading elsewhere in the forest. Below that, a doe deer munches on some vegetation while her fawn bounds along.
Top: Two young bucks sniff at the ground near the bait site, tiny antlers beginning to grow on their heads. Bottom: A doe eats away while staring aimlessly, her fawn a blur as it jumps by.
Western gray squirrels are high-energy, fast moving creatures. They love to chase one another, as seen in the photos below. They shed their fur in late spring and once again in early fall. Their tails only shed in the spring.
Left to right, top to bottom: Two western gray squirrels, one is climbing a tree trunk, the other is mid-air, to the right of the first squirrel; two western gray squirrels in mid-jump, facing away from the camera.
The golden-mantled ground squirrel, seen below snacking, is our last squirrel and last animal for this month's blog. Often confused with chipmunks, who also have striping on the body but with additional face stripes, the golden-mantled squirrel is mostly diurnal, meaning they're most active during the day and rest at night. However during the summer months they can be seen active at any time of day. They'll start hibernating in late August to November!
A golden-mantled ground squirrel in the foreground, on its two hind legs, with its hands up to its face, eating. The distinct black and white stripe can be seen running down the squirrel's body.
Although we haven't had any camera sightings of our target species from The Wolverine Tracking Project (wolverine, gray wolf, Sierra Nevada red fox, or Pacific marten) documented on camera, volunteers did find some potential wolf and fox scat!
Below, a possible gray wolf scat. There's traces of bone and hair, both of which are usually not in a domestic dog's scat and can be ruled out. The ends aren't extremely tapered, like in the coyote scat we discussed earlier, but they're also not super blunt, as seen in the feline scat. Size is also very important when looking at potential wolf scat, it must be larger than an 1.25" in average diameter to be considered for genetic analysis, and this one is just that size.
A potential wolf scat, in several pieces. Fragments of bone and tufts of hair can be seen intertwined in the scat, which is a dark brown-gray color.
Next is a potential Sierra Nevada red fox scat sample. As stated earlier, no two scats are alike, and sometimes scat from a feline could look like canine or vice versa. This possible fox scat is around half an inch in diameter, about the size of a human's pinky. Coyote scat are usually bigger, greater than half an inch, but less than one inch. This scat was found on top of tree bark, and it's important to note that many animals use roadways, clearings, or other big geographical markers to place their scat.
A small, speckled brown colored scat sits upon a piece of tree bark.
To end things on a heartwarming note, here's a small bird's nest tucked safely away in a manzanita bush. In it, two small baby chicks. How precious!
Two small gray baby birds can be seen curled up together in their nest, tucked in a manzanita bush.
That's all we have for this month's blog, check back next month for more exciting forest sightings!
Before we get into the findings, though, we want to share some of the happenings at Cascadia Wild. We hope everyone has been staying cool but still enjoying the warm weather as an opportunity to get outside and explore. If you want a little inspiration to get out there, we have some ideas!
Also, this month we published the 2020-21 Cascadia Wild Annual Report! Each report includes a message from Teri Lysak, Board Chair, annual expenses and income, and a summary of our programs and accomplishments, including the Wolverine Tracking Project, classes, clubs, and community engagement.
ICYMI: Check out our official Wolverine Tracking Project Annual Research Report, which summarizes all the wildlife findings from 2020-21's camera, tracking, fox, and wolf surveys!
Looking for a new series to watch? How about one about wildlife?
With new technological advances, nature documentaries have reached a whole new level. Check out Night on Earth and Earth at Night in Color for some never-before seen nighttime wildlife viewing!
Many animals are most active at night, when it's hardest for humans - and most cameras - to see. These two documentary series enlighten us to new behaviors, giving us more insight into animals' mysterious lives.
Now onto the highlights from our very own wildlife cameras! We've seen creatures big, small, & everything in between - from black bears to golden mantled ground squirrels and more. Cameras have also documented the arrival of new babies in the forest! So come along as we show you the best of the best from this past month.
Our first species is the black bear; these omnivores sure do have big personalities! Keep scrolling to see what black bears do when it warms up in the forest (you definitely don't want to miss the last one!).
Top to bottom, left to right: A black bear rubs up on the bait box, showing a white chest; a possible subadult walks in front of some flowering bear grass; a black bear is caught with a tongue out; a black bear is seen climbing a tree; likely a male, this black bear shows signs of scars on his head from dueling; a male and female mate.
Now onto our carnivores - first up for felines is the bobcat. Bobcat sightings always pique our interest, and this time we found two on camera, a rare occurrence! This duo is likely mother and offspring. Juveniles will leave their mother's care and disperse to find territory of their own in late winter or early spring coming into their second year. Bobcats will disperse before they reach 2 years old, males traveling further than females to find new territory.
Top to bottom: two bobcats stroll through, one after the other; a solitary bobcat walks by.
Our second and last feline is the mountain lion. We've caught a few mountain lions on camera this summer. These solitary hunters have been seen during the daytime and at night.
Top to bottom, left to right: a mountain lion strolls through the camera site during the day; a mountain lion passes through the site at night; a mountain lion rubs its cheek along the bait box.
Coyotes were the only members of the canine family detected on our cameras this month. Still, they provided us with plenty to look at!
Top to bottom, left to right: A coyote rolls around in the snow next to the bait box; a pair of coyotes visits, one urinates on the tree before taking off in the next photo.
Turkeys, adult and juvenile, were seen on a volunteer-owned camera. The little ones like to follow mom around, and are a spotty brown color.
Three adult turkeys and their offspring check out the camera site, then move offscreen in single file on a log.
Nearly every camera we have set up documented deer. These abundant creatures also happen to give birth in the spring, so we have lots of cute fawns to share with you!
Top to bottom: A doe and fawn, still with spots, walk along the forest floor; two fawns with their spots glowing in the dark, sniff the camera site.
Look at the progression between these two deer from late May to mid June - male deer, or bucks, start growing their antlers during early spring and finish in the fall, when they mate. The females carry the offspring through the winter, and give birth in the spring. Then the whole season starts again!
Left to right (or top to bottom) : A young buck starts to grow his antlers; a buck shows off his velvety antlers; a doe and fawn pass by; two fawns stop to check out the camera site; a deer blows a raspberry.
These animals may be small - but they certainly don't act that way. See these mischievous squirrels and woodrats in action!
Western gray squirrels are below; these squirrels are larger than Douglas squirrels and have a white belly and gray coat. What really gives them away is their massive, bushy tail though!
Left to right (or top to bottom): a western gray squirrel eats on top of a downed log; two western gray squirrels chase one another on horizontal log.
Here's a Douglas squirrel in action - notice the smaller build and tail than that of the western gray squirrel. This particular individual ran over the bait box and shifted it slightly.
A Douglas squirrel scampers on a log, going up and over the bait box, moving it slightly.
Our second to last rodent is the bushy-tailed woodrat, whose eyes shine brightly in the dark. The woodrat has a round tail, and can easily be confused with the northern flying squirrel which has a flatter tail. Both of these animals are nocturnal, and are seen almost exclusively at night. This woodrat decided to have a little fun with our bait box!
A bushy-tailed woodrat moves the bait box.
A northern flying squirrel is shown below for reference. The flat tail is a good giveaway for these tricky night squirrels. It may come as a surprise to many people to see these squirrels in the forest!
Left to right (or top to bottom): A northern flying squirrel sits on a log with its body towards the camera; a northern flying squirrel shows off its tail.
Wolf & fox Scat surveys
Although our cameras didn't pick up any detections of our target canines - the gray wolf and Sierra Nevada red fox - our diligent volunteers did find some (potential) neat scat of each while surveying forest trails for genetic samples and sign!
The volunteer who found the scat shown below broke it apart, revealing digested hair, bones, and grass (circled in red)!
Top: An intact, old scat. Bottom: The same scat broken apart, with vegetation circled in red.
But who could this belong to? Felines will eat vegetation to clear out their stomachs, but not to this extent. Therefore, we've ruled this scat is likely from a canid, since the dog family is a bit more omnivorous. The average diameter is just shy of 1.25" inches, our cutoff size limit for wolf scat collection. All coyotes will leave scat smaller than this, but some domestic dogs might leave scat this size. Domestic dogs are also capable of eating a large amount of vegetation, but likely would not have hair and bones inside their scat, making this a good candidate for possible gray wolf scat. Unfortunately, this scat is likely too old to gather DNA from.
So far this summer, volunteers have collected several possible Sierra Nevada red fox scats! Two of these are shown below. As canine scat, they are tapered at the ends and twisted, but are much smaller than wolf scat and coyote scat, about the size of a pinky. The presence of hair potentially eliminates domestic dogs as a possible culprit as well. Although we can't know for sure until the samples are analyzed, these are also good candidates for possible fox scats!
The two photos above show the twisted scat with tapered ends that may belong to a red fox.
While camera crews and the fox and wolf teams are out in the woods, they often find some pretty interesting signs of wildlife!
One camera crew confirmed that, like foxes and wolves, bears do indeed relieve themselves in the woods.
A large pile of bear scat (normal sized for a bear) with a hiking boot for reference.
Bear scat can have different shapes and consistencies, depending on the seasonal availability of different foods and their changing diet. However, there is always quite a lot of it!
A member on our wolf team also found this well-preserved bear skeleton:
Detail of a bear skull (top) and the rest of the remaining bear skeleton (bottom).
Sometimes, the signs that wildlife leave behind of their presence can present a good story, like this bit of cambium chew on a small tree. Below this sapling, is a rodent hole - given the teeth marks and location, the very same rodent to burrow in this hole is also likely chewing on this tree. Pretty handy to have your kitchen pantry so close by!
Top: A small tree showing signs of cambium chew. The teeth marks indicate that the animal responsible is a small rodent. Bottom two: A burrow at the base of the small tree with tiny rodent tracks shown entering and leaving.
Sometimes, we are lucky enough to see actual wildlife, and not just sign of their presence, while in the forest!
Top to bottom and left to right: A tree swallow sits on a fence line; a fence lizard basks on a stump; two ground squirrels peek out of their burrow; a turkey vulture feasts on some carrion in the road; a second turkey vulture in flight.
That's all we've got for this month! Thanks for supporting the Wolverine Tracking Project, and we hope to see you back here next month for more of the exciting wildlife news from Mt. Hood!